Friday, May 8, 2020
ItÃ¢â¬â¢s inevitable that no one is perfect, yet it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop us from trying to achieve the unachievable by molding ourselves to fit into the standards that society has brought upon us . Tillie Olsen; the writer of Tell Me A Riddle ; as well as Joyce Carol Oates; the author of Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been; both wrote their stories in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, however both capture an interesting topic that can be related to present-day situations. Both Olsen and Oates unveil to the reader the idea that intense yearning for societal approval comes from a lack of attention and acceptance from a loved one. Olsen and Oates feature both their protagonists to be compared to their sisters, while at the same time they go through issues with theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother comments Ã¢â¬Å"[Susan is] everything in appearance and manner Emily is notÃ¢â¬ ; (Olsen, pg. 5), which links back to the build up of Emily showcasing self doubt, and wanting to change herself. This also correlates to EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s yearning for attention from society as she feels that she isnÃ¢â¬â¢t gaining any from her mother;as she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the fitting look; and that is all she is striving for silently. Ã¢â¬Å"Susan telling jokes and riddles to company for applause while Emily sat silent (to say to me later: that was my riddle Mother, I told it to Susan)Ã¢â¬ (Olsen, pg. 5). This I feel is the last resort Emily takes to get the attention from her mother. She feels that Susan is taking all the attention, and at this point the applause and praise should be going to her, not Susan. Emily telling the mother is the key point in where she is trying to tell her that this attention should be coming towards her instead. Connie seeks for societal approval else where as she takes on an effort to make herself more appealing in a sexual manner as part of her search for her independence. Connie also believes that her mother doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t appreciate what she has and she is being compared to her older sister and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel a sense of belonging in her family. Ã¢â¬Å"Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t you keep your room clean like your sister?/ HowÃ¢â¬â¢ve you got your hair fixedÃ¢â¬âwhatShow MoreRelated Comparing Where Are you going, Where Have You Been and Hills Like White Elephants1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof great stories often use good technical writing skills. The purpose of this essay is to compare and contrast two short stories: Where Are you going, Where Have You Been by Joyce Carol Oates and Hills Like White Elephants by Earnest Hemingway. The comparison and contrast will be done based on their use of plot, point of view and character development. The short story where are you going, where have you been is about a teenage girl who is, vain, self-doubting and affixed in the present. She doesRead MoreThe Invisible Man Character Analysis1150 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand Joyce Carol Oates utilize negative emotions of their characters in order to showcase the complexities of their motives. Griffin, the protagonist of the book The Invisible Man, is egotistical and selfish, but this is just his outer emotions. Throughout the story there are hints at a complex background behind the famed invisible man that contribute to the reason for his erratic behavior. This is the same with the Arnold Friend, the main antagonist for Wells short story Where Are You Going, WhereRead MoreEssay on Franz Kafkas Use of Humor1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFranz Kafkas Use of Humor Franz Kafka, born on July 3, 1883 in Bohemia, in the city of Prague, has been recognized as one of the greatest writers of the twentieth century. His works have been called cloudy, mysterious, inexplicable (Oates ix). Most people hear the term Kafkan or Kafkaesque and think of dark, fantastic tales with almost no basis in our known reality. But what of Kafkas sense of humor? I personally laughed out loud several times while reading Kafkas Amerika. Were these snippetsRead MoreWuthering Heights by Emily Bronte1979 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesof Chris de Burgh, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the classical dilemma, between the head and heart.Ã¢â¬ Love can cause people to do crazy things and act in irrational ways. They think of their love first before considering the consequences. Heartbreak can also cause people to have odd behavior. Ã¢â¬Å"Like an addict chasing a high, someone in love might act rather odd or lose inhibitions or their sense of judgement.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"The Head versus the Heart Ã¢â¬ â Is Love Rational?) In the following novels, the characters are blinded by love and passionRead MoreFailed Mother-Child Relationships in Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s Oryx and Crake2805 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesvoiceÃ¢â¬ (44); placing mothers in the home reinforces patriarchal structures. Jimmy later realizesthat the animals were able to adapt successfully to the wild; they survived when mosthumans did not. He considers the possibility that his mother may have been better offby leaving also. Atwood seems to make an underlying argument for allowing morefreedom for women/mothers here that continues from The HandmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s Tale.JimmyÃ¢â¬â¢s father attempts to fill the void left by his mother, but fails to compensateforRead MoreEudora Welty a Worn Path12166 Words Ã |Ã 49 PagesCriticism 10. Compare and Contrast 11. Topics for Further Study 12. Media Adaptations 13. What Do I Read Next? 14. Bibliography and Further Reading 15. Copyright Introduction Eudora Weltys A Worn Path, first published in Atlantic Monthly in February, 1941, is the tale of Phoenix Jacksons journey through the woods of Mississippi to the town of Natchez. The story won an O. Henry Prize the year it was published and later appeared in Weltys collection The Wide Net. Since then, it has been frequentlyRead MoreEudora Welty a Worn Path12173 Words Ã |Ã 49 PagesCriticism 10. Compare and Contrast 11. Topics for Further Study 12. Media Adaptations 13. What Do I Read Next? 14. Bibliography and Further Reading 15. Copyright Introduction Eudora Weltys A Worn Path, first published in Atlantic Monthly in February, 1941, is the tale of Phoenix Jacksons journey through the woods of Mississippi to the town of Natchez. The story won an O. Henry Prize the year it was published and later appeared in Weltys collection The Wide Net. Since then, it has been frequentlyRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 Pagesmultiple study paths, to self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visual and audio resources, WileyPLUS gives you everything you need to personalize the teaching and learning experience. Ã » F i n d o u t h ow t o M A K E I T YO U R S Ã » www.wileyplus.com ALL THE HELP, RESOURCES, AND PERSONAL SUPPORT YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS NEED! 2-Minute Tutorials and all of the resources you your students need to get started www.wileyplus.com/firstday Student support from an experienced student user
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Literature refers to the realm of letters and the writings of a particular period, mostly those whose value lies in the beauty of form or emotional effect. Technology is the science of the industrial arts. Scientists have played an important role in promoting human welfare, but the benefits of science may not have reached the masses, at any rate in ample measure, without technological devices and practical applications. We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Literature in the Age of Technology or any similar topic only for you Order Now We live in the world of both science and technology and many people, who take a rather superficial view of things, have begun to feel that in the technological world of tomorrow the role of literature seems poor. In fact, literature in its pure form is believed to have little relation with science and technology. Science provides knowledge and power and both science and technology affect human life at several points, though the extent and utility of the applications are determined by our culture, our wisdom and our priorities. Literature reflects the moods and emotions of the times in which it is produced; it is conditioned by the reflexes which, in turn, are created by the impact of science and technology. Modern technology increasingly dominates the world, and the domination is likely to become more pronounced in future, because of the fast developments tending to subdue creative human thinking and expression. But the belief that literature would have no place in future and in futuristic calculations is erroneous. There is no reason to believe that the mechanical way of life, in which our actions are governed more and more by computer culture and electronic calculators of all types, will destroy the talent of writers, authors, poets, biographers and artists. Technology does not discourage natural, multi faceted talent; rather, it generally promotes the climate for expressions of talent in countless channels. All round prosperity helps a great deal in creating literature of lasting value, and it is technology which has made many countries wealthy and prosperous. Jawaharlal Nehru cautioned us some four decades ago that it was only through the growth of technology that our country would become prosperous. In some cases technological development and automation may cause misery, through the resultant unemployment, for instance. But it has to be noted that both science and technology also provide additional avenues for employment; countries which boast of maximum employment, or nearly so, are those which are technologically advanced. In fact, our country may go down, instead of progressing fast, if we do not keep pace with technological developments and march in step, as far as possible, with the industrialised and technologically progressive nations. It is not only for the sake of the material benefits, the comforts and conveniences of life that we must opt for the latest technological processes, even by discarding our traditional practices, but for our art and literature, too, we shall have to make the best of technology, which would enable talented people to put in their best in art and literature. Some people think and they have a reason for doing so, that since science demolishes faith and tradition, it tends to produce scepticism, anxiety and even tensions, and it doubts everything, even cherished values. Science has eliminated superstitions. Technology helps to provide weapons of war; war stimulates technologists, but it depresses the artists and those who prepare literary pieces. Sensitivity and the urge to create new masterpieces get suppressed; reckless destruction, bloodshed and hostilities ruin the very climate that helps to create literature and artistic masterpieces. Culture and literature, after all, indicate the cultivation of manÃ¢â¬â¢s inner nature. Culture prompts men and women to seek perfection; they are not motivated by curiosity and the endless sense of enquiry which characterise scientists and technologists. Literature expresses feelings and innermost thoughts and ambitions, while technology has other ends and other fields to explore. Literature may at first appear to be out of place in a technological milieu, but surely scientists and technologists do not encroach upon the field of literature. There seems to be no reason why both literature and technology cannot flourish side by side. A society that is highly progressive technologically may also become rich in literature. We may take the example of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most industrially advanced country and the mightiest military power, the USA, where technology has registered unprecedented achievements and yet the USA has produced rich literature. Technology results in affluence and prosperity and economic prosperity promotes good literature and masterpieces in the arts. So there is no contraction involved. It is only during war and the all out preparations for war, that literature gets a setback. Science and technology, it has been truly said, have radically altered the face of civilisation, but nothing, not even the most sophisticated mechanical devices and the most fruitful applications of new inventions, can change human nature or replace human being, who must indeed remain in effective command of all scientific inventions and their day-to-day application. Technology has created robots, artificial intelligence in the shape of Ã¢â¬Å"thinking computersÃ¢â¬ which can read, translate, interpret and give decisions with amazing speed and accuracy. But not even the most sophisticated technological advances can by themselves produce literatureÃ¢â¬âpoetry, prose, plays, novels and stories. In a sense, science and technology may be said to be of direct assistance in promoting literature, because they help to create leisure by introducing labour saving and time saving devices and by eliminating drudgery as well as duplication of effort. The leisure thus created can be put to literary pursuits. In such a context, the talk of a contradiction between technology and literature is not well founded. Scientific know how may thus be viewed as technology which, examined dispassionately, has an important bearing on arts and literature. Good literature makes a lasting impact on the human mind; it entertains, instructs and ennobles the spirit of human beings; it does not debase or corrupt the mind in any way, and it certainly does not lead to destruction of any section of mankind. Science and its handmaid, technology, however, have placed in the hands of man vicious and highly destructive tools in the shape of lethal weapons the like of which he has never had before. Literature builds, but technology, if misused by vicious statesmen and politicians may cause havoc on a massive scale, destroying both litterateurs and technologists without discrimination. Technology does make for concentration and centralisation of economic and political activity. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality, sense of fraternity and selflessness tend to get eroded. Where there is less patronage of art and talent, there is bound to be less of literature of permanent value, because the right spirit and mood are not there to promote it. The depersonalisation of modern life which, it appears, will get stronger as the years pass, is likely to discourage writers and poets; misery, anguish and a generally noisy atmosphere are hardly conducive to the production of sound literature. But we need not give up all hope of a better world tomorrow, from the standpoint of culture and literature, simply because science and technology tend to predominate over human values. It is within the power and capacity of man, provided he exercises his sound judgment and pursues the right priorities to shape a better world, where literature flourishes along with industry and technology. How to cite Role of Literature in the Age of Technology, Essays
Monday, April 27, 2020
Repeated Debut Ã¢â¬Å"of Mice and Men StoryÃ¢â¬ , Us Best-Seller over 15 Years, Written by John Steinbeck Ã¢â¬Å"Of Mice and MenÃ¢â¬ it is a very famous work, which was written in 1937 by world-known storyteller and famous essay writerÃ John Steinbeck. A long Ã time ago, the story has been granted with the classic status. Ã¢â¬Å"Of Mice and MenÃ¢â¬ text is so powerful, but it is not as simple as Ã it may seem when you just begin to read it. Once more a bitter tale about Ã¢â¬Å"littleÃ¢â¬ people. John SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s Story The story of John Steinbeck shows us the tragic story of two hard workers in the Great Depression period in California. It concerns such concepts as Ã¢â¬Å"a dreamÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"a guiltÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"a compassionÃ¢â¬ . The book is based on SteinbeckÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã personal experience, who worked in agriculture in 1920. Steinbeck does not differ some particular points, there are even pictures in black and white upon the eyes which help to feel complete the AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere of those years. The author described everything so deep and clearly that no one could not pass heartless through this story. Be ready to hear and feel all voices, all sounds all emotions of that book. It is so hard to write an analysis about this work. There are so many thoughts in the head. The Great Depression, Ã America of The twenties, the lack of money and the most important thing for everyone is to survive by anyways. People plough to feed their families from morning till late at night, everyone is looking for a corner in this cruel world, everyone wants to find someone with whom you can just talk heart to heart, and whom to trust and each person has a dream, all of them dream about something internal, theirs own. George and Lenny Ã¢â¬Å"Of Mice and Men,Ã¢â¬ it is a very touching and tragic story about love and friendship, loyalty and unfulfilled dreams. Of course, the work wins with its characters described there. They are incredibly alive and realistic. Two friends, two vagrants, George, and Lenny have been searching for a work arrived at the following ranch. Lenny is the mentally retarded man, but a very good and strong one, George is his friend who always protects his companion who is in twice larger. They will never leave each other. Lenny, an amiable Ã¢â¬Å"idiotÃ¢â¬ , constantly forgets everything and is completely harmless, like a child, but he can harm himself and always brings trouble, that is why, George permanently have to keep an eye on him, and friends always travel from farm to farm. And they are dreaming of their own one: to breed chickens, pigs, rabbits and other animals, to plant a vegetable garden and walk on circuses and fairs. And only they will be the owner of all the farm and nobod y can expel them. Lenny is in some kind very unmindful and always asks George to repeat about what awaits them in the future, about the farm, about independence Ã The main thing is they are in each other: Ã¢â¬Å"Because I have you, and you have meÃ¢â¬ . Lenny sincerely believes in that dreams and George, always faithfully protecting his illusions and hopes, starts to believe in them too. How few people need to be happy and how much people need to be happy The destiny has always her own plans. Almost from the very first paragraph, this short story was imbued with some kind of despair. The fate smiles so rarely to Ã such simple hard workers like George and Lennie. First of all, the story is about a collapse of hopes, about something unrealizable, which always supports human life, even if he knows that this will never happen. In some moments, it is simply hurt to read this story because you start to pass it through yourself. So naive and timid mentally retarded people had to face with that cruel, vile and insolent world, and they are forced to live in it, looking in it with their uncomplicated innocent and kind eyes, expecting only the best. I would like to have a better world that would accept them. The authorÃ¢â¬â¢s subtle and vital Ã description of all events and experiences, which are close to each of us. The story language is so simple and soulful. There are no frills, no cobwebs, and nevertheless, the characters fate and their relationship are so catchy that it is impossible to break away. After all, this is still a rarity, when two friends meet such loyalty and affection for each other, when they cherish common dreams about the future. This story is about the family responsibility, Ã taking responsibility for those Ã¢â¬Å"whom we have tamedÃ¢â¬ . Ã And on the difficult choice that could put lives. The story about the fact that our world is not black and white, but there are people and mice. The characters came to the story homeless and exhausted. They initially have the dramatic fate. A tragic outcome, which will wait in the final, in actual fact, was already predestined. The reader sees that with the naked eye. The harbinger of this is a dead mouse, which Lenny keeps in his pocket. Manslaughter more than once will appear in the story. But will the killing as a deliverance from suffering (the dog Stumpy). And, of course, the apotheosis of the book is GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s act. But it will not just murder. This rescue attempt. The act of self-denial, the recognition that there will be no happiness. At the same time, it is the highest manifestation of love that can take a terrible responsibility. Love and Responsibility The love and responsibility are here not just empty words. George and Lennie are connected with each other with the purely human love and devotion. It is clear seen from the text that they are not relatives, and George is not obliged to be responsible for the unlucky Lenny. But their love is based on Christian values. And we are talking not about loneliness, which so scares other Ã barracks inhabitants. The point is in the ability to feel love and pity for the man. That feature makes us different from mice. And the fairy tale about the future in their ranch, which George tells Lennie is a simple lie. Probably we will go against general opinion and say that this book is not about dreams destruction. It is about a high Ã¢â¬Å"LoveÃ¢â¬ one person to another. StoryÃ¢â¬â¢s Discrepancies Honestly saying there are bunch of inconsistencies which Steinbeck generously scattered throughout the text: Lenny, big and strong, but, in fact, the perfect child; LennyÃ¢â¬â¢s remarkable strength and love for soft fluffy baby animals; The womanÃ¢â¬â¢s presence (Ã Ã ¡urleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wife) and totally masculine world of ranch; Stub, who is so tied to his old dog, but still allows to shoot it. A small, but SO strong story. Completely another story about little men, which disinterested friendship, wealth and poverty, the racism subject and attitudes toward mentally handicapped people. And, of course, about the dream, the light, and pipe. Everyone has a dream, it warms the soul in a difficult time and forces to live. The amazing book! So many feelings, emotions, thoughts, it is difficult to take a breath. It does not let go for a second, and you gulp page by page. This is the story of wealth and poverty, but first and foremost about the dream Unfortunately, which did not come true. And what a pity that our present live have nothing in differing with charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ position. We also humpback from morning till night to feed our families, Ã dreaming, looking for better places in the life where we would be taken for what we are, without condemnation. We are hoping to find at least someone who can be trusted, but just to talk heart to heart. And the story end just broke at all. How much courage need Ã the person to decide on that? How deep need to be tied to the man to do so? And, what is the most importantly, how to live with it hereafter? It is unimaginableÃ¢â¬ ¦ Do you have a dream? Is something like that, what do you want with all your heart? You think about it constantly, aiming for its execution? Then this book is for you. This book is worth to be read! And always keep dreaming, because there is no reason to live for without hope and something to believe inThe story is about a dream. About its creating and falling to the ground. To learn how to create those dreams, and how they crumble. The fact that even in the most critical situation the person is open to the dreams, and it warms personÃ¢â¬â¢s heart. The book opens something new in everybody, something that they even did not know about themselves. And more, the story has absolutely incredible end which no one expects
Thursday, March 19, 2020
MLA Style Made Easy When your teacher assigns a paper topic, you not only have to worry about what youre going to write about, where youre going to find your sources, but you also have to look up how the paper should be formatted and what your citations should look like both in the text and in your works cited.As a student of writing its highly likely that you will be assigned to research and write a paper in MLA style. MLA style, or Modern Language Association style, is commonly used for English literature, foreign language, literary criticism, comparative literature, and cultural studies papers. Luckily, many find this paper style to be one of the simplest to learn and write in (especially when compared to footnote-heavy Chicago Manual of Style or rule-heavy American Psychological Association Style).Lets take a deeper dive into what MLA style is, why its used, specific formatting advice, and examples you can use to guide you when writing your MLA formatted research paper.What is MLA Style?MLA style, a s we mentioned earlier, is most commonly used for research papers in the humanities and liberal arts. The MLA style guide dictates how research papers should be formatted and how sources should be cited. The MLA Handbook contains information on everything you need to know about writing a research paper in this style and will be available to you in a library for your reference.Though the MLA Handbook has very thorough guidelines on how to write an MLA research paper, its still important to read the directions from your teacher or professor carefully on your specific assignment. The handbook may not necessarily have all of the exact answers you may need, so if you need help its best to ask for the assistance of a teacher or a librarian to cover all your bases.Why do we use it?Right now you may be thinking to yourself, Why do these papers need to be in such specific formats? The answer is simple: to provide uniformity to papers so that they are readable. If research papers are written in a uniform way with citations to match then the reader can focus less on what the paper structure looks like and then the ideas from the paper can get more easily translated. Style guides also provide such specific formatting for citations because its important that when a writer has a claim to make that she can back it up with evidence to prove it, and also to make sure that she isnt plagiarizing.Though it may be difficult to see the reasoning while youre carefully making sure that each citation has a period at the end of the title and that the name of the journal is italicized, conforming to the style is crucial so that you gain credibility with your reader.How should my paper look when I write according to MLA style guidelines?Unless your professor or teacher has specific guidelines otherwise, your MLA style paper should be double spaced with 12-point font. Most papers use a standard font, such as Times New Roman, but you can use any easily readable font as long as the italiciz ed characters are distinguishable from its regular characters. MLA also requires that you use only one space after the end of a sentence.In addition to double spaces and fonts, MLA has outlined that your paper should be set up to have 1-inch margins on all sides (top, bottom, left, and right) so that your words arent running off the page. These settings can all be adjusted in your Microsoft Word tools at any time during the writing process. You should also have a header with your last name and a running page number in the upper right hand corner of the page. Some teachers may not want you to put a page number on the first page, so be sure to ask if there arent specific instructions on this matter.On the left hand side of the paper, you should have your name, instructors name, course, and date above your centered title (see image below for example). Every word in your paper title should be capitalized except for articles that arent at the beginning of the title (such as a, an, and th e), coordinating conjunctions (such as and, but, and or) and infinitives (for example: How to Write). If you ever have a question on which words shouldnt be capitalized in your title there are tools to help you make any adjustments, such as CapitalizeMyTitle.com. Though this tool is handy and quick, be sure to know the rules enough to spot any errors that the tool may give out.Here is an example of a MLA heading.Once you have your papers margins and headers sorted out, there are a few things to remember when you begin writing the body of the text. First, to continue the readability throughout the paper, MLA dictates that the first line of each paragraph is indented a 1/2 inch from the left margin. All you need to do to accomplish this is just to press the tab button, which gives you a cleaner and more exact result than pressing the space bar several times. Another thing to remember when writing in MLA style is to italicize titles of works, which is why its important to pick a font t hat distinguishes italics from regular text.Quotations and paraphrases should be attributed to the author by last name within the text with a page number (or line number if youre dealing with poetry) at the end in parentheses. Direct quotations that are longer than four lines should be set off in a block quotation that is 1/2 inch from the left margin. Note that block quotations do not need quotation marks to distinguish them. If the block quote spans several paragraphs in your source document, then indent the first line an additional 1/4 inch.Direct quotes from the author that are shorter than four lines can simply be written in the paragraph and can be set off by quotation marks. If you are adding any words to the quotation for explanatory reasons, use brackets () to offset your words from the sources. If you are eliminating extraneous words from the direct quotation, use ellipses to indicate that the words are missing. To do this, simply type three periods in a row (Ã¢â¬ ¦) an d the word program will automatically put in the correct amount of space needed. See the images below for more information on how to handle quotations.This is a sample MLA in-text direct quote.This is a sample MLA block quote.Does MLA use endnotes or footnotes?Endnotes or footnotes are very common in other styles, such as Chicago, but are not typically seen in MLA because it is thought that they can clutter up a page or distract the reader. The MLA guidelines restrict the usage of footnotes when they are referring to other works that may be useful for the reader to learn more on the subject. Occasionally you will also see explanatory notes, which give more details about a subject that dont necessarily fit with the theme of the paper.Though these are allowed, MLA format discourages their overuse, so use sparingly if you must. If you decide to put in these endnotes or footnotes, indicate them with a superscript number that goes after the period.How should my works cited look according to MLA style guidelines?The works cited page is one of the most important pieces of your research paper, as it lists all of the research you have cited throughout the paragraphs and lays them out for the reader to verify your facts. The works cited page is also one of the most labor-intensive parts of a research paper, and its crucial to know what goes into it while youre researching so you dont have to retrace your steps later on.There have been some updates with the newest edition of the MLA Handbook to keep up with the modern era of research. Before the eighth edition, each kind of citation had a particular way of being written up, but now that has all changed. According to the MLA website: Previous editions of the MLA Handbook provided separate instructions for each format, and new formats required additional instructions. In this groundbreaking new edition of its best-selling handbook, the MLA recommends instead one universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any t ype of source.Luckily for us, this new edition means that theres been a lot of simplification in the citation process. Still, you need to ensure that you are gathering all of the right ingredients for your citation.To begin putting together your works cited, you will need to start with a separate page in your document. The page should have a centered title that says, , with no underlining, italics, or bold applied. Like the other pages in the paper, be sure to double space your works cited page.The individual citations should have a hanging indent, which means that the first line of the citation is flush with the margin and the subsequent lines are indented 1/2 inch. This makes the citation easier for the reader to comb through. When it comes to capitalization of titles within a citation, use title caps for every word in a title except for articles, prepositions, or conjunctions (unless of course its the first word of a title). If the title is for a short work, such as a newspaper a rticle or a poem then use quotation marks. If the title is for a longer work, such as a book, use italics.Here is an example:An MLA citation should be as follows: Author. Title. Title of container (this could be an anthology, book, magazine, journal, newspaper), Other contributors to the work, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication Date, Location (this doesnt mean a literal location, but instead page numbers, URL, or DOI).Be sure that you are consulting your MLA Handbook for more specific instructions on citation guidelines, as this is just a loose example of what to expect.In previous versions of the MLA Handbook, the location was literally naming the city in which the book was published. Because many things are now published electronically, MLA has decided to drop that requirement in its eighth edition.When you are organizing your citations, they are to go in alphabetical order by authors last name. If your source has an unknown author, then the title comes first in the citation. Lastly, when citing an online source, a DOI (or a digital object identifier) is always preferred over a URL, if available.What else do I need to know about writing an MLA research paper?In addition to specific formatting issues, the MLA Handbook gives great advice on writing and grammar that are important for students to learn. Like any other kind of research paper, its crucial to check your spelling and to make sure that your facts are correct. Ensuring that your paper is adhering to MLA standards will give you credibility, and help you organize your research in a more efficient way.
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Dictionary of Old Occupations and Trades If you found someones occupation listed as a ripperÃ (seller of fish),Ã seinter (girdle maker), hosteler (innkeeper) or pettifogger (shyster lawyer), would you know what it meant?Ã The world of work has changed greatly from the times of our ancestors, causing many occupational names and terms to fall into disuse.Ã Ancestral Occupations If someone was a boniface or a gennaker, then they were an innkeeper. A peruker, or peruke maker, was someone who made wigs. And just because an individual was identified as a snob or snobscat, doesnt mean he was condescending. He may have been a cobbler or someone who repaired shoes. A vulcan not only refers to aÃ fictional extraterrestrial humanoid species in the Star Trek franchise but is also a traditional English term for a blacksmith. To further confuse the issue, some occupational terms had multiple meanings. Someone who worked as a chandler could be someone who made or sold tallow or wax candles, or soap, or they might beÃ a retail dealerÃ in provisions and supplies or equipment of a specified kind. Ships chandlers, for example, specialized in suppliesÃ or equipment for ships, known as ships stores. Another reason you may not recognize a particular occupation is that abbreviations are and were commonly used in many records and documents. City directories, for example, often abbreviated occupations of city residents in an effort to save space and cut publication costs. A guide to the abbreviations can generally be found among the first few pages of the directory. It is also common to find certain longer occupational names abbreviated in census records, due to limited space on the census form. The instructions to enumerators for the U.S. federal census often provided specific instructions as to if or how occupations should be abbreviated. The 1900 census instructions, for example, state The space in column 19 is somewhat narrow, and it may be necessary to use the following abbreviations (but no others), followed by a list of acceptable abbreviations for twenty common occupations. Enumerator instructions in other countries may provide similar information, such as instructions to enumerators for the 1841 census of England and Wales. Why does it matter what work that our ancestors chose for their livelihood? As it still is today, the occupation is often an important part of who we are as individuals. Learning about the occupations of our ancestors can provide insight into their daily lives, social status, and possibly even the origin of our family surname. Including details of old or unusual occupations can also add a touch of spice to written family history. Resources Cant find what youre looking for? Additional sources for old and obsolete occupations and trades: Halls Genealogy Website - Old Occupation NamesSome of the definitions include in-depth information and interesting details.SteveMorse.org - Occupation Codes from the 1910Ã¢â¬â1940 U.S. CensusCant decipher an occupation from a 20th century U.S. census? Look for the code and then use the files provided by Steve Morse to connect the dots.Family Tree Researcher - Dictionary of Old OccupationsJane has an extensive list of unusual, old occupations on her website or, for a few dollars, you can purchase an easy reference ebook version.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS PAPER - Essay Example regulate US commerce in such a way so as to limit the constitutional implications for employees.2 Kudler Fine FoodsÃ¢â¬â¢ employees are subject to these limitations, particularly with reference to freedom of speech and protection of privacy. These constitutionally protected rights take on an entirely different complexion within the workplace. In general a company is at liberty to monitor employee telephone calls between an employee and a customer for the purpose of quality control. However, once all the parties to the telephone conversation are located in the State of California, the state law makes it mandatory that the parties are aware either by a beep or tone signals or recorded message that the conversation is being recorded.4 This state law is mandated and indorsed by virtue of the Commerce Clause.5 However, telephone conversations between states are subject to Federal law and monitoring without warning is permissible.6 However, there is a national exception that requires an employer to cease and desist monitoring of a telephone conversation once it becomes clear that the telephone conversation is of a personal nature.7 The only real recourse for KudlerÃ¢â¬â¢s employees is to use either mobile telephones and/or payphones in order to protect their privacy in respect of personal telephone calls while on company pre mises. The same policy generally applies to email contents. Typically the law recognizes that computers in the workplace are the property of the employer and that will include the electronic mail system. The right to privacy with respect to email messaging in the work place was addressed by the California Court of Appeal in Bourke v Nissan 1993. In this case the California Court of Appeal ruled that an employee who used his or her employerÃ¢â¬â¢s electronic messaging system on the work place did not have a reasonable expectation of privacy and no claim for invasion of privacy could be sustained in the circumstances.8 Moreover, by virtue of the Computer